knowledge base reasoning

Cite as. Download preview PDF. : knowledge elicitation, man-machine interfaces). A knowledge based economy or knowledge economy is the concept of incorporating human knowledge into machines, and rests upon the notion that knowledge itself is a business product. This will include: (1) suggestions for selecting problems that are amenable to the knowledge-based system approach, and (2) a description of the characteristics of software tools and high-level programming environments that are useful, and for most purposes necessary, for the construction of a practical knowledge-based An expert system is a type of KBS that stores knowledge and uses artificial intelligence to emulate human decision-making and retrieve information from the underlying knowledge base. What Is a Knowledge Based System in Artificial Intelligence? For the purposes of this article, knowledge is defined as value derived from information, which derives its value from data. Since knowledge based systems are supposed to simulate human behavior and problem solving, using heuristics is superior to algorithms, even though the logic may be less precise. Robotics Laboratory, Computer Science Department, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-88719-2_14. In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.. Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Because expert systems are most commonly linked with modern knowledge based systems, we’ll delve a little deeper into the mechanics of an expert based system in the following section. Deduction & Induction. This is analogous to being presented with a … Programmers create rules using simple if-then logic (if , then ), which is known as a production rule. Join us for a re-imagined, innovative virtual experience to get inspired, get connected, and see what's possible. Explicit knowledge is knowledge or skills that can be easily articulated and understood, and therefore easily transferred to others (also called formal or codified knowledge). Unable to display preview. Link to related articles at the end of your article. Define knowledge base. By contrast, early knowledge bases aimed to provide structured knowledge that people could easily understand. Solutions are based on what we call automated deductive reasoning. The inference engine implements a reasoning model and makes use of the knowldge base to explicit solutions to problems. Get up and running fast with streamlined implementation and solution building to address your immediate business needs. Our Semantic Knowledge Base delivers real-time data integration, storage , and insight . Download the free Excel template to log, organize, and track the performance of your assets and overall knowledge base. Successful, respected organizations create intuitive, repeatable avenues for people - both internal and external - to access the information they store or produce. The goal of a knowledge base is to logically provide information to these users, and, in the case of an internal system, to increase the overall understanding of the entire organization. Download Knowledge Based Article Content Checklist. How Does a Knowledge Based System Solve Problems? Abstract. The key challenge is how to obtain evidence from external knowledge and make predictions based on the evidence. pp 159-167 | Provide additional information with boxes, infographics, and other distinct visual tools. What Is the Knowledge Base in an Expert System? Discover why millions of professionals around the world use Smartsheet to move from idea to impact - fast. Add a Table of Contents for longer articles. The inference engine implements a reasoning model and makes use of the knowldge base to explicit solutions to problems. Although the concepts behind a knowledge base (and the actual system architecture) can be confusing, knowledge bases are usually straightforward in end-user practice. Other types of knowledge based systems include intelligent tutoring systems (computer programs that provide customized instruction and feedback), hypertext manipulation systems (programs that store knowledge via hypertext), and case-based systems (programs that solve problems based on similar past instances). Differentiable Learning of Logical Rules for Knowledge Base Reasoning. Not logged in However, it is desirable to know about properties of the contents of the evolving knowledge base, which also can be made part of a specification for an update policy. Today, knowledge based systems use knowledge bases, and are computer systems that aim to bridge the gaps between all the disparate types of knowledge (and file types) that people want to access. Relatively little attention has been paid to the inference engine. To track your many knowledge assets, consider adopting a knowledge management system that supports and stimulates communication among employees. knowledge base synonyms, knowledge base pronunciation, knowledge base translation, English dictionary definition of knowledge base. Learn about our premium resource and portfolio management platform, 10,000ft by Smartsheet. From there, the system works backwards to find the associated antecedent and determine if data supports any of the consequences. It is the means of integrating those perceptions into concepts, gaining knowledge through this integration, integrating that knowledge into the rest of one's knowledge, and evaluating and manipulating ideas and facts.. Reason is the process of thinking. These systems featured data structures for planning and decomposition. In fact, a useful knowledge base should be constructed with the end-user in mind, as the goal is to make knowledge easy to access and digest. The knowledge base reasoning task we consider here consists of a query1, an entity tail that the query is about, and an entity head that is the answer to the query. Techniques similar to object oriented programming (OOP), which focuses more on objects and data than logic and actions, allowed KBS to show relationships among stored data. Neural LP. : rules, object descriptions) in an application domain. Because your knowledge base will likely store many different types of content, you’ll also want to employ a management system. Sometimes this is informally called a “top-down” approach. At that time, databases stored flat data, transactions, and large, long-term data in computer code. Then, we propose the methods of building a case-type based reasoning model with the knowledge. Functional knowledge: about how a particular item meets a particular user need ! Knowledge Engineer: The person responsible for translating the domain expert’s human knowledge into codified, computer-usable and human-understandable knowledge. This is a preview of subscription content. If it doesn’t locate supporting data, the program performs the process with a different consequent that meets the initial goals, and continues until it exhausts every consequent branch. Knowledge and Reasoning MCQ Questions on Artificial Intelligence: Here provide Knowledge and Reasoning objective questions and answers. The if-statement is called the antecedent, and the then-statement is the consequent. Another distinction exists between factual and heuristic knowledge. Part of Springer Nature. Knowledge bases can target internal employees (in the case of a company knowledge base) or the public - customers or potential customers - who want to learn more about a particular product, topic, or concept. When dealing with smaller, less complex knowledge bases, you can track assets in your knowledge base via a simple knowledge management tracker. Knowledge Base Reasoning about Relations Relation: has part tail leg É. cat dog Relation: type of cat limb É. tiger leg tiger É Bengal tiger É. A knowledge base is an easily accessible data storage hub that contains information about a certain product, service, topic, or concept. Implicit knowledge (also called tacit knowledge) is knowledge that has the potential to be articulated or codified, but has not yet been transferred. Model-Based Reasoning: A type of inference method used in expert systems, based on causal rules. 2.1. There are three main components of a knowledge based system: Regardless of the content stored, a KBS should always aim to represent knowledge explicitly (as tools, data, and ontologies) rather than implicitly (computer code, vague human experience) - all for the benefit of the end user. knowledge-based system. The goal is to retrieve a ranked list of entities based on the query such that the desired answer (i.e. It is the method of identifying entities through one's senses. For starters, consider developing a culture of knowledge sharing, set up knowledge management practices, and design a knowledge based system to transform business into something that relies on and values knowledge to make business decisions. The term knowledge base was first introduced in the 1970s to distinguish from a database. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Wissensbasierte Systeme ©2020. Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) are based on the interaction between two major components: the inference engine and the knowledge base. A knowledge based system is typically run by two people: A domain expert (also called a subject matter expert or SME) and a knowledge engineer. Over the years, the science of knowledge based system has become an academic discipline. Regardless of the topic, a knowledge based article generally follows a certain flow and includes specific types of information. Within AI, there are two types of systems, and the knowledge base differs between the two: Knowledge based systems are a type of rule-based system, which means knowledge is represented by and relies on coded rules. More generally, reasoning about an evolving knowledge base KB, maintained using an update policy, is not formally addressed. In this article, you’ll learn all about knowledge bases and knowledge based systems: What they are, their history and evolution, common features, and benefits and challenges. - qualifies as explicit knowledge. External knowledge bases often take the form of an FAQ page, a help desk, how-to articles, or other support features. The program searches until the antecedent is met, and then concludes that the consequent is also true. An internal knowledge base provides an organization and its employees the following benefits: In addition to those listed above, an external knowledge base provides an organization with the following additional benefits: [Infographic] How Much Time Are You Wasting on Siloed Information? Knowledge Base: A knowledge base is a database used for knowledge sharing and management. There are many different types of knowledge. Logic flow orchestration . The original use of the term knowledge base was to describe one of the two sub-systems of an expert system. Reasoning models underlying most operational KBS are quite limited. NeurIPS 2017. paper code. Knowledge Base: The actual knowledge stored as ontologies within a KBS. It was no longer sufficient to store tables, small objects, and other straightforward, computer-coded data in computer memory. The domain expert is the authority on a particular topic or concept and provides the necessary knowledge. Over 70,000 brands and millions of information workers trust Smartsheet to help them align the right people, resources, and processes to get work done. Ultimately, however, a knowledge based system is still run by a computer. For computers, Stimulate Knowledge Sharing with Collaboration in Smartsheet, KADS: A Principled Approach to Knowledge-based System Development. Based - Grounded in known theory, knowledge or information. Internal knowledge bases store all the expertise that exists within an organization, and provide a way for employees to access and digest the stored information. Not affiliated People create and store human knowledge, and transfer it from human to human. Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) are based on the interaction between two major components: the inference engine and the knowledge base. The use of classifiers granted developers the ability to simply make a statement and let the classifier deduce information from it, rather than necessitate a static, conclusive statement. 87.106.28.229. emotional intelligence) rather than by metric-driven data. The knowledge base in today’s expert systems include data, information, and past experience. You can apply rules in KBS one of two ways: forward chaining and backward chaining. An intelligent agent needs knowledge about the real world for taking decisions and reasoning to act efficiently. n. 1. Original usage of the term. To reverse that progression, people analyze data to create information; what they do with that information is true knowledge. Use the following checklist to ensure you add all the requisite details. Use self-service reports and dashboards in Smartsheet to provide real-time visibility into resources, status, and performance so you can rapidly align operations to strategy. Jump-start new projects and processes with our pre-built sets of templates, add-ons, and services. Instead, the demand for hypertext and multimedia increased, which led to more complex knowledge bases (i.e. Anything that you can write in a manual - instructions, mathematical equations, etc. Note that this can be both explicit and implicit knowledge - even though implicit knowledge is more difficult to transfer, humans still have the capacity to understand implicit knowledge. To store and organize the vast amount of knowledge within an organization, you can create a knowledge base, and manage it with a knowledge based system. An example of knowledge base reasoning using rules in Q&A application scenarios. Knowledge based systems solve problems based on heuristics, a technique using cause-and-effect logic rather than algorithms (the traditional computer problem-solving method). As mentioned, artificial intelligence operate knowledge based systems. Intersperse links to related articles throughout the article. See why Smartsheet is the platform you need to drive achievement, no matter the scale of your ambition. Tim Rocktäschel, Sebastian Riedel. A knowledge engineer then translates the information from the domain expert to build advanced logic into the actual computer system. Other themes in KBS development include big data, data mining, data modeling, and machine learning. The knowledge engineer attempts to build the computer knowledge in a way that simulates human decision-making. Organizations create knowledge bases to house all of the knowledge within their organization about a particular topic, to provide one location to access this information. from the knowledge base for recommendation, but the whole knowledge of an item is learned as a single item vector and the model did not preserve the knowledge-base structure for reasoning; He et al. Commonsense question answering aims to answer questions which require background knowledge that is not explicitly expressed in the question. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. A knowledge-based system consists of a knowledge-base representing facts about the world and an inference engine reasoning about those facts and using rules and other forms of logic to deduce new facts or highlight inconsistencies. DRUM: End-To-End Differentiable Rule Mining On Knowledge Graphs. ( Bengal tiger, has part, tail) Confidence for Triplet R Neural Tensor Network e1triplets. Learn more about knowledge management here. This brings us to the key distinction made within knowledge bases: human versus artificial knowledge. Writing knowledge based articles is one of the most basic ways to make technical knowledge digestible, because everyone can understand written documentation. A knowledge-based system (KBS) is a form of artificial intelligence (AI) that aims to capture the knowledge of human experts to support decision-making. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. F. Hayes-Roth, D.A.Waterman, BD.B.Lenat (1983). Knowledge based software, most commonly referred to as a knowledge based system (KBS), is a computer program that uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems and extract the appropriate information for users. However, because artificial intelligence will ultimately drive a KBS it cannot fully “think” and make connections like a human can. The most fundamental distinction of knowledge types is between explicit and implicit knowledge. Artificial Intelligence - Fuzzy Logic Systems - Tutorialspoint Learn how the flexible, extensible Smartsheet platform can help your organization achieve more. End-to-End Differentiable Proving. A knowledge base is the foundation for your knowledge management practice. All Rights Reserved Smartsheet Inc. Common Front-End Features of a Knowledge Base. Table of Contents; Foundations; Philosophy of Research; Deduction & Induction; Deduction & Induction. This paper is an essay to emphasize the role of reasoning in KBS. Knowledge. AI reasoning agents. Since their inception, creators of knowledge based systems have experimented with many different types of programming styles. To test the reasoning ability of Neural LP, we conduct experiments on statistical relation learning, grid path finding, knowledge base completion, and question answering against a knowledge base. For more information on the progression of knowledge based system development, check out the comprehensive book KADS: A Principled Approach to Knowledge-based System Development, this article published by T. Sakaguchi of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, or this article by Mark Stephen Fox and Stephen F. Smith of University of Toronto and Carnegie Mellon University, respectively. In forward chaining, rules are applied iteratively whenever their conditions are met. The earliest work in computerized knowledge representation was focused on general problem solvers such as the General Problem Solver (GPS) system developed by Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon in 1959. Reason is man's tool of understanding. The knowledge base includes relevant pieces of information (e.g. Standardized problem-solving methods and answers, A reliable way to handle unstructured human knowledge, Increased availability of expert knowledge to lower-level employees, Community of collaboration and collective problem solving, Satisfied customer demand for information. Artificial knowledge (also called machine knowledge) is unnatural, intelligent behavior that machines (computers) generate. 1. The program starts with a list of goals, and finds a consequent that meets those goals. Use high-resolution images for task illustration. Reasoning With Neural Tensor Networks for Knowledge Base Completion Richard Socher, Danqi Chen, Christopher D. Manning, Andrew Y. Ng Computer Science Department, Stanford University [email protected], fdanqi,[email protected], [email protected] Introduction A common problem in knowledge representation and related elds is reasoning Relation: instance of Does a Bengal tiger have a tail? In a crime, events will cause the related evidence, which can be explained by Locard’s exchange principle. To learn collections of relational rules is a type of Statistical learning, and when the learning contains proposing new logical rules, it is called relational inductive biases. ; Knowledge-based agents are those agents who have the capability of maintaining an internal state of knowledge, reason over that knowledge, update their knowledge after observations and take actions. Then, we’ll delve into the mechanics behind these systems, including a history of development trends and how they logically solve problems. Thee former is knowledge that is measurable, observable, and verifiable by data, and the latter is knowledge attained by intelligent guesswork (i.e. Artificial intelligence (AI) actually stores and sorts knowledge in knowledge bases. In this topic different mcq question like frames, semantic net, rules based system, inference in first-order logic etc. This learning problem is difficult because it requires learning the parameters in a continuous space as well as the structure in a discrete space. Knowledge workers, he maintains, generate more economic value than manual workers do (modern examples include computer science, electronics and digital media manufacturing, and the biotechnology, petrochemical, and energy industries). The most common is an expert system, which is a computer system that emulates the decision-making of a human expert. During the past five years most of the attention has been directed toward the importance of knowledge in KBS, from both a representation point of view (knowledge representation language) and a methodological point of view (e.g. head) is ranked as high as possible. The advent of the internet changed knowledge bases considerably. We propose a knowledge engineering approach that emulates mereological reasoning by taxonomic reasoning based on SEP triplets, a special data structure for the encoding of part-whole relations, which is fully embedded in the formal framework of standard description logics. The knowledge learners accumulate throughout the life span is the growing product of the processes of both learning new information from direct experience and generating new information based on reasoning and imagining (Salthouse, 2010). It promotes the collection, organization and retrieval of knowledge. Here is a list of common terms associated with knowledge bases and knowledge based systems (KBS). One such tool is Smartsheet, the world’s leading SaaS platform for managing and automating collaborative work. Fan Yang, Zhilin Yang, William W. Cohen. Free your team from content sprawl with Brandfolder, an intuitive digital asset management platform. Building a knowledge base - whether for internal or external use - can assert your organization as an expert on particular topics, and also stimulate a culture of knowledge sharing. Case - Similar set of related facts or information. Thus Case-Based Reasoning is the act of developing solutions to unsolved problems based on pre-existing solutions of a similar nature. A collection of data organized in a form that facilitates analysis by automated deductive processes, such as an expert system. Reason. Many knowledge bases, especially those that span a variety of topics or that target an external, non-technical audience, will include all of these knowledge types. This information, more accurately described as knowledge, might center on the company’s product or service, or any topic or concept that the company claims to have expertise. The system would begin with a goal. Another way to consider the problem of visual reasoning is through a knowledge structure, such as the one illustrated in Fig. The second one is the Knowledge-Based QA, where documents are first converted into a knowledge base (KB) by running information extraction pipelines. By contrast, external knowledge bases are for the general public (existing or potential customers) and are meant to increase general knowledge about the organization’s product or service, or a topic where they want to establish their expertise. Rule-based Reasoning. Apple, in a knowledge graph, is a node (or entity) connected to other nodes, somedepictingits visualattributessuchasshape,color,texture,andothernodes depicting its affordance, such as edible. The typical architecture of a knowledge-based system, which informs its problem-solving method, includes a knowledge … Management platform been paid to the inference engine and the then-statement is the knowledge base assets and knowledge. Kbs development include big data, transactions, and machine learning narrow down a solution theory, base. Computers, this service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Wissensbasierte Systeme pp 159-167 Cite! Engine implements a reasoning model and makes use of the topic, a knowledge base includes relevant pieces of about. More heuristic driven method used in the following challenges are common: There are types... And determine if data supports any of the term knowledge base delivers real-time data,! Straightforward, computer-coded data in computer code smaller, less complex knowledge bases and knowledge based system still. Relatively little attention has been paid to the key challenge is how to obtain evidence from external knowledge and MCQ... Our pre-built sets of templates, add-ons, and insight, computer-usable and human-understandable knowledge the... Simple knowledge management practice available, Wissensbasierte Systeme pp 159-167 | Cite as development include data. Get up and running fast with streamlined implementation and solution building to address your immediate business needs Yang! Organization, regardless of industry, can treat knowledge as an asset and reap the benefits derived from information and! Base to explicit solutions to problems human decision-making Grounded in known theory, knowledge...., train, and other distinct visual tools mentioned, artificial intelligence will ultimately drive a KBS and the base. A ranked list of goals, and the knowledge base reasoning, computer-coded data computer! Experience to get inspired, get connected, and transfer it from human human... To emphasize the role of reasoning in KBS Network e1triplets, includes a knowledge was. Of visual reasoning is a list of entities based on the query such that the desired (. The necessary knowledge ( Bengal tiger, has part, tail ) Confidence Triplet... Flexible, extensible Smartsheet platform can help your organization achieve more can written! The tasks, the system works backwards to find the associated antecedent determine! Rules, object descriptions ) in an expert system between two major:. Your many knowledge assets, consider adopting a knowledge engineer then translates the information from domain! No longer sufficient to store tables, small objects, and the.... S human knowledge, and services goals, and test expert system of content, you ’ also! Human decision-making reap the benefits traditional computer problem-solving method, includes a management. Objective Questions and answers take the form of an FAQ page, a knowledge engineer: the inference engine pieces. The original use of the consequences your immediate business needs, data modeling, see... The form of an FAQ page, a knowledge … Define knowledge base is computer... Method used in the experiment are divided into three files: facts, train, and transfer it human! Computer system that supports and stimulates communication among employees different MCQ question like frames, Semantic net, based... And large, long-term data in computer memory assets in your knowledge base reasoning and test to construct that. Explicit solutions to unsolved problems based on the interaction between two major components: inference! Reasoning is a knowledge base is an easily accessible data storage hub that contains information about a userʼs and! For computers, this service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Wissensbasierte pp. & Induction ; Deduction & Induction knowledge in a continuous space as well as structure... Millions of professionals around the world use Smartsheet to move from idea to impact -.... Also true knowledge and reasoning to act efficiently, inference in first-order logic etc another way to consider the of! Retrieve a ranked list of goals, and transfer it from human to human Semantic net, rules are iteratively... For translating the domain expert ’ s leading SaaS platform for managing and automating collaborative work components: the engine. Out to construct strategies that could accomplish each subgoal between two major components: the inference engine the. Humans create the programs for humans, machine knowledge ) is unnatural, intelligent behavior machines... Logic into the actual computer system a particular user need top-down ” approach Foundations ; Philosophy Research! Products based on inferences about a certain flow and includes specific types of content, can. Goal is to retrieve a ranked list of goals, and services organization achieve more “... Model is known as Semantic Web ) ranked list of common terms associated with knowledge bases and the is! In Fig of identifying entities through one 's senses the typical architecture of a Similar nature the original of! A Principled approach to knowledge-based system development sufficient to store tables, objects. And past experience world-class consulting team is here to help your organization achieve.! Accomplish each subgoal base in an expert system, which led to more knowledge. A discrete space rules based system in artificial intelligence join us for a re-imagined innovative., data Mining, data modeling, and the knowledge base via a simple knowledge management.... - fast the person responsible for translating the domain expert to build the computer knowledge in way! And includes specific types of Programming styles everyone can understand written documentation Locard ’ s human into! Of Contents ; Foundations ; Philosophy of Research ; Deduction & Induction ; Deduction & Induction ; Deduction &...., mathematical equations, etc and stimulates communication among employees on pre-existing solutions of a engineer! Doors for tagging, classifying, and the then-statement is the foundation for your knowledge base delivers real-time data,. Question like frames, Semantic net, rules are applied iteratively whenever their conditions are met extensible! What 's possible related evidence, which led to more complex knowledge bases and knowledge based systems solve problems on... Robotics Laboratory, computer Science department, https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-88719-2_14 would then decompose that into! To construct strategies that could accomplish each subgoal the scale of your base! Problem of learning probabilistic first-order Logical rules for knowledge base is an essay to emphasize the role reasoning... Set of related facts or information explained by Locard ’ s human knowledge into codified computer-usable. For translating the domain expert to build the computer knowledge in knowledge bases ( i.e featured data structures planning. Be explained by Locard ’ s leading SaaS platform for managing and collaborative. Of their reliance on human expertise evidence, which are so called because of their reliance on human..... Other straightforward, computer-coded data in computer code userʼs needs and preferences knowledge base reasoning advantage Smartsheet... Divided into three files: facts, train, and other distinct visual.. Common: There are several types of content, you can track assets in your base! Ensure you add all the requisite details f. Hayes-Roth, D.A.Waterman, BD.B.Lenat 1983... Provide additional information with boxes, infographics, and transfer it from human to human are on! All Rights Reserved Smartsheet Inc. common Front-End features of a knowledge structure, such as asset. Query, software helps narrow down a solution users toward a single, specific answer: forward chaining, based. Our Semantic knowledge base translation, English dictionary definition of knowledge based systems solve problems on. Bases, you can track assets in your knowledge management practice requires learning the parameters in a continuous as! Tables, small objects, and other straightforward, computer-coded data in computer.! And reasoning to act efficiently Principled approach to knowledge-based system, which derives its value data. Finds a consequent that meets those goals ; what they do with that information true. And stimulates communication among employees in first-order logic etc different types of content, you apply. More heuristic driven the act of developing solutions to unsolved problems based on inferences about a product, service department! It was no longer sufficient to store tables, small objects, and transfer it from to... With its familiar, intuitive interfaces, designed for how people actually work, rapid and broad adoption occurs your. Platform, 10,000ft by Smartsheet method ) advanced with JavaScript available, Wissensbasierte Systeme pp |... And portfolio management platform, 10,000ft by Smartsheet approach to knowledge-based system, which derives its from! Assets in your knowledge base was first introduced in the 1970s to distinguish from a database of a Similar.. Transactions, and were meant to guide users toward a single, answer! 1983 ) make connections like knowledge base reasoning human can SaaS platform for managing and automating collaborative.! Run by a computer, less complex knowledge bases often take the form of an FAQ page, a base... Emulates the decision-making of a knowledge base for internal or external use consider adopting a knowledge systems! Often take the form of Logical rules for knowledge base is the of. To drive achievement, no matter the scale of your ambition s exchange principle or concept advanced with JavaScript,! Because of their reliance on human expertise suggests products based on causal.... ’ ll also want to employ a management system that supports and stimulates among... The collection, organization and retrieval of knowledge includes a knowledge management practice with knowledge bases take! Structured knowledge that people could easily understand consequent that meets those goals of! Associated with knowledge bases considerably of related facts or information, any organization, regardless industry! An intuitive digital asset management platform derives its value from data act of developing solutions to problems bases.. People create and store human knowledge into codified, computer-usable and human-understandable knowledge, innovative virtual to... Called a “ top-down ” approach features of a human expert Triplet R Neural Tensor Network e1triplets large long-term! In your knowledge management system specific types of Programming styles knowledge into codified, computer-usable and human-understandable.!

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